serif n : a short line at the end of the main strokes of a character [syn: seriph]
- Dutch: schreef
- Greek: ακρεμόνας (akremónas), πατούρα (patúra)
- Italian: grazia
- Lithuanian: užkardėlė
- Portuguese: serifa
- Norwegian: serif
In typography, serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A font that has serifs is called a serif font (or seriffed font). A font without serifs is called sans-serif, from the French sans, meaning "without". Some typography sources refer to sans serif typefaces as "grotesque" (in German "grotesk") or "Gothic," and serif types as "Roman." These terms are no longer commonly used however, except in specific font names.
Origins & etymologySerifs are thought to have originated in the Roman alphabet with inscriptional lettering—words carved into stone in Roman antiquity. The explanation proposed by Father Edward Catich in his 1968 book The Origin of the Serif is now broadly but not universally accepted: the Roman letter outlines were first brushed onto stone, and the stone carvers followed the brush marks which flared at stroke ends and corners, creating serifs. The origin of the word "serif" is obscure, but apparently almost as recent as the type style. In The British Standard of the Capital Letters contained in the Roman Alphabet, forming a compleat code of systematic rules for a mathematical construction and accurate formation of the same (1813) by William Hollins, it defined surripses, usually pronounced surriphs, as 'projections which appear at the tops and bottoms of some letters, the O and Q excepted, at the beginning or end, and sometimes at each, of all.' The standard also proposed that 'surripses' may be derived from the Greek words συν (together) and ριψισ (projection). In 1827, a Greek scholar Julian Hibbert printed his own experimental uncial Greek types. He explained that unlike the types of Bodoni's Callimachus, which were 'ornamented (or rather disfigured) by additions of what I believe type-founders call syrifs or cerefs.'
The oldest citations in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) are 1841 for "sans serif", given as sanserif, and 1830 for "serif". The OED speculates that "serif" was a back-formation from "sanserif." Webster's Third New International Dictionary traces "serif" to the Dutch noun schreef, meaning line, stroke of the pen, related to the verb schrappen: to delete, strike through. Schreef now also means "serif" in Dutch.
The OED's earliest citation for "grotesque" in this sense is 1875, giving stone-letter as a synonym. It would seem to mean "out of the ordinary" in this usage, as in art grotesque usually means "elaborately decorated." Other synonyms include "Doric" and "Gothic," commonly used for Japanese Gothic typefaces.
East Asian Equivalents
In traditional printing serifed fonts are used for body text because they are easier to read than sans-serif fonts for this purpose. Sans-serif fonts are used for shorter pieces of text and subject matter requiring a more casual feel than the formal look of serifed types. Sans serif types have recently begun to supplant seriffed types for headings with a 'cleaner' look.
Serifed fonts are the overwhelming typeface choice for lengthy text printed in books, newspapers and magazines. For such purposes sans serif fonts are more acceptable in Europe than in North America, but still less common than serifed typefaces.
While in print serifed fonts are considered more readable, sans-serif is considered more legible on computer screens. For this reason the majority of web pages employ sans-serif type. Hinting information, anti-aliased and sub-pixel rendering technologies have partially mitigated the legibility problem of serif fonts. But the basic constraint of screen resolution — typically 100 pixels per inch or less — and small font sizes continues to limit their readability on screen.
As serifs originated in inscription, they are generally not utilized in handwriting. A common exception is the printed capital I, where the addition of serifs distinguish the character from lowercase L. Printed capital Js, and the numerals 1 and 7 are also often handwritten with serifs.
ClassificationSerif fonts can be broadly classified into one of four subgroups: old style, transitional, slab serif, or modern.
Old StyleOld style typefaces date back to 1465, and are characterized by a diagonal stress (the thinnest parts of letters are at an angle rather than at the top and bottom), subtle differences between thick and thin lines (low line contrast), and excellent readability. Old style typefaces are reminiscent of the humanist calligraphy from which their forms were derived.
It has been said that the angled stressing of old style faces generates diagonal lock, which, when combined with their bracket serifs creates detailed, positive word-pictures (see bouma) for ease of reading. However, this theory is mostly contradicted by the parallel letterwise recognition model, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists who study reading.
Old style faces are sub-divided into Venetian and Aldine or Garalde. Examples of old style typefaces include Adobe Jenson (Venetian), Janson, Garamond, Bembo, Goudy Old Style, and Palatino (all Aldine or Garalde).
TransitionalTransitional (or "baroque") serif typefaces first appeared in the mid-18th century. They are among the most common, including such widespread typefaces as Times Roman (1932) and Baskerville (1757). They are in between modern and old style, thus the name "transitional." Differences between thick and thin lines are more pronounced than they are in old style, but they are still less dramatic than they are in modern serif fonts.
Slab SerifSlab serif (a.k.a. "Egyptian") typefaces usually have little if any contrast between thick and thin lines. Serifs tend to be as thick as the vertical lines themselves and usually have no bracket. Slab serif fonts have a bold, rectangular appearance and sometimes have fixed widths, meaning that all characters occupy the same amount of horizontal space (as in a typewriter). They are sometimes described as sans-serif fonts with serifs because the underlying character shapes are often similar to sans serif typefaces, with less variation between thin and thick shapes on the character. (A subcategory of slab serif is the Clarendon typefaces, which do have small but significant brackets, and structures more similar to seriffed typefaces.) Slab serif typefaces date to around 1800. Examples of slab serif typefaces include Clarendon, Rockwell and Courier.
ModernModern serif typefaces, which first emerged in the late 18th century, are characterized by extreme contrast between thick and thin lines. Modern typefaces have a vertical stress, long and fine serifs, with minimal brackets. Serifs tend to be very thin and vertical lines are very heavy. Most modern fonts are less readable than transitional or old style serif typefaces. Common examples include Bodoni, Century Schoolbook and Computer Modern.
- Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style (version 3.0), 2004, Hartley & Marks, Publishers, Vancouver, BC, Canada
- Father Edward Catich, The Origin of the Serif: Brush writing and Roman letters, 1991,Hartley & Marks, Publishers, Vancouver, BC, Canada
- Ellen Lupton, Thinking with Type: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Editors, & Students, 2004, Princeton Architectural Press, New York
- James Mosley, The Nymph and the Grot: the revival of the sanserif letter, 1999, London: Friends of the St Bride Printing Library
- "The Serif is Dying" discussion at Typographica on the merits and popularity of sans & seriffed type.
- "Serifs—What's the point?" discussion at Typophile on the role & function of serifs.
- "Who Shot the Serif?" and "The Return of the Serif" An introduction to the serif, and distinguishing between subtypes
- "Serif vs. Sans Serif", a discussion on Blogdorf about serif versus sans serif type.
serif in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Сэрыф
serif in Czech: Serif
serif in Danish: Serif
serif in German: Serife
serif in Estonian: Seriif
serif in Spanish: Gracia (tipografía)
serif in Esperanto: Serifo
serif in Basque: Serif
serif in French: Empattement (typographie)
serif in Italian: Caratteri tipografici con grazie
serif in Hebrew: תג (גופן)
serif in Javanese: Serif
serif in Lithuanian: Serifai
serif in Dutch: Schreef
serif in Japanese: セリフ
serif in Polish: Szeryf (typografia)
serif in Portuguese: Serifa
serif in Slovak: Serif
serif in Serbian: Serif
serif in Swedish: Serif
serif in Chinese: 白体 (字体)